All Things Color for Film and Digital Cinema
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Digital Intermediates

DI Movie Posters

dinosaur-island-posterinfiniposterpredestination-postergreat-gatsby-poster-110306644_304133756430714_5869085925177622421_na82312c02wuwish you were heremuirhouse-posteru5MoDUQRii9dEnBAg4PAj5rzqCdDaybreakers-posterwebaccidents_happenwasted-on-the-young-movie-poster-2010-10206931084407CANE TOADS 1SHT.inddjohn_doe_vigilanteneedleimagesa_heartbeat_away_poster015319da9f9dd9313subdivisionstorage-poster_280x415600full-lake-mungo-posterirresistible_bThe_Jammed_Film

fivemomentsofinfidelitycover-1

boytown-movie-poster-2006-1020442085rats-and-cats-poster-0

wilthe-secret-movie-poster-2006-1020481627

december-boys-movie-poster-2007-1020402805

autumn-moon-movie-poster-1992-1020297792


Coming Soon for Android – 2014 – Cinematography Color Grading Assistant application

Screen Grabs from my new Color Grading Application for Android.

2014_02_19_16.02.38

Color Grading Modes

  • Collaborate, Share and Manage OnSet “Looks” between DP, Colorist and OnSet DIT.
  • 3D Lut Support
  • Grading Modes – Levels – RGB Exposure ” Printer Lights” – 3 Way Color Correction
  • Database support for “look” tracking and management.
  • Includes effects for additional image treatment. (NB: THESE FUNCTIONS ARE NOT ASC CDL ‘AWARE’ )
    • Textures
    • Vignettes
    • Frames
  • All operations are “Live” and not compounded operations as in many other Android image processing apps.
  • or simply use as a professional Color Grading app for your Phone Stills (Lite Version) saving as PNG or JPEG.
2014_02_19_15.47.43

3 Way Color Correction

2014_02_17_21.33.07

Effect Modes – Vignette | Texture | Frames | Color Map

2014_02_19_15.41.16

All parameters are Live – No pre-rendering required between modes

Application includes:

  • 3d LUT support:
  • ASC SOP color Grading
  • Additional Image Effects
  • Android Screen Color Calibration
  • Export of ASC CDL grade files for Import into any color Grading Application.
  • Internal Database for managing grades:
    • Project Name
      • Shoot Day
        • Clip Name
  • Export Options:
    • “Extended Metadata” ASC CDL .cc file
    • Graded Reference Still
    • Original Ungraded Still
  • Preferences:
    • Help functions On / Off
    • User Name | Project Name | Shoot Day
    • Background Color
    • Load User Luts
    • Screen Calibration

2014_02_17_17.54.48

Adrian

 


A nice little freeware Mac OS calibration app for Computer/Laptop Screens

stacks_image_474

“SuperCal™ is a visual display calibrator capable of measuring and correcting most conventional displays, including LCDs, CRTs and projectors. SuperCal doesn’t require any hardware measurement devices – only your eyeballs – yet it can be much more accurate, based on how well you pay attention to what you’re doing.”

SuperCal™ by bergdesign is a simple to use screen calibration tool. If youve struggled in the past with the Mac OS tools to calibrate your computer/ laptop screen then this will definitely help without the expense of a full calibration Kit.

Results of this software, when calibrating by eye, are far superior to the stock standard tools found in MacOS screen prefs.

Blacks look a lot better, Gamma is better and white point is good as well. If you want to get into saturation and color gamut you’d have to get the full version.

The software can be downloaded from here:

http://www.bergdesign.com/supercal/

Adrian


DCI P3 White Point and color primaries – Measurement Reference – 6300k

Projecting a set of white and color primary  test images from your DCP player or software/Hardware solution should give the following readings when properly projected through a calibrated system and measured with an accurate  color meter.

Measuring and calibrating a projectors DCI white point should not only be performed with the projectors internal test patches. I personally argue to test calibration with both the projectors internal test patterns as well as external test patterns because depending on the image interface to the projector from the DCP player or SDI hardware output, experience tells me some of these interfaces/modules can and do add additional adjustments to the color gamut and levels.

Luminance 14 Ft Lamberts

Gamma: 2.6

White:  x 0.314   y 0.351

Red:      x 0.680   y 0.320

Green:  x 0.265   y 0.690

Blue:     x 0.150  y 0.060

 

 


Happy Feet Two – 3D

Happy Feet Two

2011

Director: George Miller

Studio: Warner Brothers

Senior Digital Intermediate Colorist : Adrian Hauser

Graded Stills from the Teaser Trailer


S3D Stereoscopic Screen Parallax / Disparity Calculator

v1.04 Excel template of my S3D Screen Parallax Calculator.

It will end up as an OSX app and a Android Mobile Phone Application in the coming weeks.

Measures Positive and Negative Pixel Parallax of a Stereo Scene on a given Screen Size.

Inputs:

  • Camera Base
  • Focal Length
  • Near Distance
  • Far Distance
  • Focal Distance
  • Sensor Size
  • Projection Ratio
  • Projection Size
  • Projection Resolution
  • Floating Windows


Protected: DCI – Digital Cinema Projection Reference

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Waveform Vs Histogram interpretation in Digital Cinema Cameras

Understanding how to read Histograms present on many new digital cinema cameras can be tricky and are easily misenterpreted.

For analysis, I will use the below still from the film Daybreakers as reference.

Ethan Hawke in "Daybreakers" (2010)

The following snapshots have been taken using DpxRead available on the Panavision website.

Immediately we can see that there is a massive difference in the way these two images are represented in each of the graphical/statistical graphs.

Histograms represent the volume/percentage of light levels exposed within a particular image. The resulting graph shows the distribution/intensity plot of those levels.

Histogram Exposure

The above image reference image  is quite ‘moody’. The histogram shows us this quite literally but surprisingly shows nothing of where the midtones sit. This is because Histograms work with percentages and Ratios of light. If for the most part an image is dark, say 60% of the overall area , then the rest of the histogram has to be interpreted with the remaining 40 percent of image area. For that reason the intensity represented by the histogram for the remaining light values is visually a lot lower than the Dark spike shown in our reference.

To better show the way a histogram graphs an images lightness values I have put the below gradient into the scopes.

Linear Grayscale Ramp

We can see that because there is an even amount of each light level within the gradient image the Histogram shows an even intensity/distribution of each ‘level’.

Video Waveforms on the other hand give us a lot more visual information with which to evaluate your exposure and contrast ratio. As well as showing us the distribution of light values the graph is also plotted across the horizontal plane of the image. With this additional ‘axis’ one can easily determine where within the frame a particular item sits in its digital exposure value. This makes it easy to find for example the exposure of someones skin tone in relation to the background subject matter.

Histograms are Cheap and Easy to display from a programmers POV but in my opinion are quite useless in representing photographic content and should not be used for indepth exposure analysis.

Adrian


D-Lux. Website Live

dlux

See Website for more details.


iRiS – Photochemical Color Timing Reference Image

Here is a color reference image I generated for quickly visualising Color Density Readings. You should ask your lab to write down their density readings of the LAD / 445 CV grey patch at the head of each Roll on each Box/Can of print film you receive. With this information you can immediately determine if the print is a “little magenta” or a “little dark” and pre warn clients before a screening that the neg is OK but this particular print out of that particular days processing bath is a biased in that direction.  

Click the LINK HERE for a downloadable version.

 

iRiS - Lab timing reference

iRiS - Photochemical Lab Timing Reference Image

 

 

The printer light settings on the rotary dials are arbitary 25-25-25 settings. More than likely each lab changes these settings each day after calibrating themselves to the processing bath using a sensitometric wedge. I have personally found it is better to talk to your Lab consultant in terms of printer point changes      IE +1 red -2 Green +1 Blue      rather than actual printer lights, 26 23 26, as this can cause confusion. 

For example if your print had a LAD density reading of 1.03 1.06 1.03 you could deduct that the print was a little Red and a bit lighter. IF though the print LAD was “on AIM” ie 1.09 1.06 1.03 but you still thought the print was a little red you could ask in subsequent prints for a trim of -1 Cyan (the complimentary opposite of RED) which would result in a print that was less red and a fraction darker. The numbering seems a little counter intuitive but referencing the numerics on the RGB rotary wheels you can see that subtracting one point on the red ‘wheel’ you would be pushing it up (making 25 become 24) which in turn is letting less red light through. This in turn makes the Green and Blue ‘lights’ more visually dominant, hence Cyan. 

 

 Coming very soon is my visualization Application for MacOSX that is pretty much the above user interface but provides realtime color feedback to the image of your selection with adjusted printer lights using your preferred input 3DLUT. Very useful for dealing with your film LAB of Choice when making and timing Answer Prints.

If you would like to know any more about this application please feel free to email me.

 

 

 

 

Adrian Hauser


China Girls 2

Back in 2005 Julie Buck and Karin Segal put on an exhibition in New York called “Girls on Film”. 

Julie was manager of the Harvard Film Archive and had the task of sorting and preserving the Film Archive Collection. The exhibition was a tribute to the many anonymous women who worked in the film industry.


Protected: Adding Fine Grain to Digital Images – Perceptual Sharpness

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China Girls .

 

China_girl7

China_girl7

For a bit of fun and curiosity I will update this post over time with images of China girls. China Girls are used to adjust and check printer density.

They provide subjective and objective colour and gray scale patches.

These patches can be read on Densitometers to confirm the process. They are a standard laboratory test film usually incoporating a face and a greyscale; used for printer line-up.

 

 

 

1_11


Density and the Film Lab – Density Pt.4

 

Lab Aim Density / China Girl

Lab Aim Density / China Girl

 

China Girls are used to adjust and check printer density.

They provide subjective and objective colour and gray scale patches.

These patches can be read on Densitometers to confirm the process. They are a standard laboratory test film usually incoporating a face and a greyscale; used for printer line-up.

See the post on China Girls for a look at some of the older examples of these majestic images.


Optical Density Explained. Density Pt 2.

As mentioned in Part 1, optical density or ‘log density’ is the scale used for measuring photographic optical ‘lightness’. 

In describing densitometry, three main terms are used. Transmission(T), Opacity(O) and Density(D).

Transmission (T) is a measure of the light passing ability of a material expressed as a percentage. It is calculated by taking the measured transmitted light and dividing it by the incidental light(the light source).                T= transmitted light/incident light

Opacity (O) is the ability of a medium to absorb light. Opacity is measured as     O= 1/transmitted light 

Optical Density (D) is the l                                                                                                  D=Log(O)

                                                               or                  D= (LOG10(1/T) 

Using the basic principles above we can best show the relationship between Transmission, Opacity and Density using a graph mapping out a black to white scale over a number of steps.

10-step-opacity_density

 

To the Left you can see how as the ‘linear’ transmittance of light increases the measured “optical density” of the image decreases. Obviously the more light being allowed through a medium the less ‘dense’ it becomes. 

 

 

 

Adrian


The film scanner as a densitometer

 

The Spirit 4k Datacine

The Spirit 4k Datacine

Why all these posts on Densitometry?

 

Because for me to understand the nature of how a scanner accurately scans and represents the filmed dynamic values and colors of a scene I delved in to the science of  the sensitometry of film. 

The color film scanner functions very much like a densitometer. A light is passed through the film, detected and its optical density read by a sensor. In digital imaging, color needs to be defined by three components Red, Green and Blue. Each pixel on the array of the scanner reads the Color density of the section of the image hitting its photosite and converts the results into data values which are then read into a file for each frame. 

The understanding of things like densitometry and the sensitometry of film has helped me in being able to deliver the best most accurate scans that deliver the creative intent and the pure colorimetry of a scene. To come later will be posts on color cross talk and purity.

Adrian


Protected: Densitometry Pt2 “the 21 step test strip”

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Protected: From neg to print via digits – DI – the round trip

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The Macbeth Chart

The Macbeth chart is a color evaluation chart that represents and reflects the colors of nature under any illumination. It is used as a color rendition and reproduction target for both stills and motion picture imaging labs. Using the  given set of digital scientific values for each patch an operator can evaluate a given image exposed with the card and correct for color inconsistencies inherent in Digital imaging devices, film stocks, lens coatings, old lamps, printing stocks, printing paper, monitoring devices,….ect.

Below is the Macbeth Color Chart and its relative CIE and SMPTE-C RGB values.

Macbeth Color Chart

Macbeth Color Chart

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

No Name CIE_x CIE_y CIE_Y Hue Value Chroma RGB_TRIPLET
1 dark skin 0.400 0.350 10.1 3 YR 3.7 3.2 116 80 67
2 light skin 0.377 0.345 35.8 2.2 YR 6.47 4.1 196 149 129
3 blue sky 0.247 0.251 19.3 4.3 PB 4.95 5.5 91 122 155
4 foliage 0.337 0.422 13.3 6.7 GY 4.2 4.1 88 109 67
5 blue flower 0.265 0.240 24.3 9.7 PB 5.47 6.7 128 127 175
6 bluish green 0.261 0.343 43.1 2.5 BG 7 6 90 190 169
7 orange 0.506 0.407 30.1 5 YR 6 11 221 119 44
8 purplish blue 0.211 0.175 12.0 7.5 PB 4 10.7 71 90 164
9 moderate red 0.453 0.306 19.8 2.5 R 5 10 198 81 98
10 purple 0.285 0.202 6.6 5 P 3 7 93 60 107
11 yellow green 0.380 0.489 44.3 5 GY 7.1 9.1 158 88 64
12 orange yellow 0.473 0.438 43.1 10 YR 7 10.5 234 161 49
13 blue 0.187 0.129 6.1 7.5 PB 2.9 12.7 47 59 151
14 green 0.305 0.478 23.4 0.25 G 5.4 8.65 65 150 71
15 red 0.539 0.313 12.0 5 R 4 12 181 40 59
16 yellow 0.448 0.470 59.1 5 Y 8 11.1 241 200 38
17 magenta 0.364 0.233 19.8 2.5 RP 5 12 190 78 146
18 cyan 0.196 0.252 19.8 5 B 5 8 0 134 164
19 white 0.310 0.316 90.0 N 9.5 0 242 242 236
20 neutral 8 0.310 0.316 59.1 N 8 0 200 200 199
21 neutral 6.5 0.310 0.316 36.2 N 6.5 0 159 160 159
22 neutral 5 0.310 0.316 19.8 N 5 0 122 121 119
23 neutral 3.5 0.310 0.316 9.0 N 3.5 0 84 84 84
24 black 0.310 0.316 3.1 N 2 0 53 53 53 

Densitometry for Lookup Tables Pt.1

A densitometer is a device that measures the optical density of an image on any printed medium, be that celluloid print film, paper, photographic film negative or any other medium. If the image is printed on paper we could read its optical reflectance, if printed on 35mm print film we would be reading its optical transmission qualities.

As human vision is measured in logarithmic values so too are the results of the densitometer. When taking readings of a Motion Picture print over a densitomter we are reading the prints transmissive qualities of light. In Status A densitometry (more on that in the next post) the lighter the patch the more it transmits light. The denser the image the less transmission of light. Density is defined as  

Optical Density = log10(1/transmittance)

I have a X-Rite310 densitometer which is common to most Film Labs around the world. It reads, for any given reference, the Red, Green and Blue optical transmission values which is imperative in creating RGB Color profiles or 3D lookup tables (3D LUT’s) for film.

Fig:A a 4x4x4 example target

Fig:A 4x4x4 example unity target or Identity LUT

 

Printing a set of specific color and grey scale patches to the desired medium, like the ones in figure A, an operator can read and translate the optical transmission characteristics of each individual patch and create a ‘lookup table’ . This profile can then be used to visualize on a monitor what the image will look like when printed to film. It is also profiling the characteristics of the imaging device which recorded the patch to film. In our case an Arri Laser film recorder. The more colors sampled the more accurate the representation will be. (The example used is extremely ‘low res’ and is only used for demonstration purposes.) To achieve an accurate representation we tend to use a ‘matrix’ of 4096 color patches!

 Lets look at those color patches from Fig:A mapped into an RGB cube to see just how these work. (See Fig:B)

Fig:B Representation of the 4x4x4 Color Cube

Fig:B Representation of the 4x4x4 Color Cube

 

If you compare the image in Fig:A and the Color Lattice to the left you can see each of the 64 patches are represented in a 3 dimensional cube which we can call the RGB Color Cube. The extreme corners represent %100 code values for all the primary colors of the cube, and Black. If you were to only look at the points down the diagonal axis from Black to White you would be looking at a grey scale.   From this would could create an identity LUT which would read something like Fig:C in ASCII text. Being an identity LUt it would have no optical effect to the original image.

 

 

 

ASCII 3DLut 4x4x4 identity matrix

ASCII LUT

         Starting at Black and reading the 4 points across to red expressing them as RGB Triplets. (I am assuming a an 8 bit scale which doesnt divide very well in 3 from 256 code values so excuse the rounded math)

 

        We then move up one row towards Green and read out the next row of 4 points.

 

 

         Until we read the top at which point we move in one row towards Blue and then begin reading the rows on that plane in the same way. Eventually after 64 entries of RGB triplets we have successfully mapped the cube.

 

 

 

In the photographic desktop publishing world images like the one in FIg.D are used. These are called Targets. The most used one is the Kodak IT8 Target.

kodak_IT8_target

Fig:D Kodak IT8 Target

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig:B 4x4x4 identity LUT

Fig:E 4x4x4 identity LUT

Due to the different optical characteristics of different papers, films and imaging devices the original image will never look the same when printed, unless, through software we mimic those qualities on the monitor we are referencing the digital image on.

When printed to the desired medium and each of the patches are measured on a densitometer we remake the cube and will notice that the points are slightly deformed taking on and showing us the optical properties of the medium.We then transpose those results to represent the films qualities in to a new ASCii LUT

Fig:C transformed LUT

Fig:F transformed LUT

 

We then transpose those results to represent the films optical qualities in to a new ASCii LUT that can be fed into the monitoring device.

 

 

What I have just described is the most rudimentary basics of color management and 3D color Lookup’s. The Following Posts will go deeper into real world color calibration also touching on, using Marcie,monitor characteristics, viewing environments, film projection characteristics, different recording and printing stocks.

 

Adrian.

 

Image References:

Nvidia.com – Graphics GPU technology examples

RPIImaging.com  - IT8 printing Targets.

cube-lattice


Protected: Excel application for visualizing Print Densitometry readings

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Lab Aim Density

Lab Aim Density / China Girl

Lab Aim Density / China Girl

China Girls are used to adjust and check printer density.

They provide subjective and objective colour and gray scale patches.

These patches can be read on Densitometers to confirm the process. They are a standard laboratory test film usually incoporating a face and a greyscale; used for printer line-up.

See the post on China Girls for a look at some of the older examples of these majestic images.


Photochemical Color Timing

 

Colormaster Color Analyzer for Photochemical Color Timing

Colormaster Color Analyzer for Photochemical Color Timing

 

When it come to the ‘dark arts’ photochemical color timing and film processing has to be up there in the TOP TEN. Understanding the film lab and its physical tolerances in achieving AIM Density is as critical as having your internal color management/LUT’s spot on. (you can have the most precise Print emulation LUT in the universe, but if you are unaware of your Film Labs characteristics you could still be in for a surprise. WYSIWYG should really be What You See Is Pretty Much What You Get in the perfect world. The colors and density may be great but both digital and Film projection technologies and their visual characteristics through different light sources in different cinemas are still very …… different. )

 

 Here is a link to a pdf file that shows the effect of printer light adjustments on a print.

Adrian Hauser

 


Film Processing

 

 

 

 

Colormaster Color Analyzer for Photochemical Color Timing

Colormaster Color Analyzer for Photochemical Color Timing

A reference of Film Processing workflows and helpful guides to help and guide you with processing Digital Negatives and creating the primo Answer Print/ InterPos/ InterNeg and Release Prints at the Film Lab. 

View Posts Here

Film Processing
 

 

Adrian